Every Time there is a possibility of lying, there is a sign function: which is to signify (and then to communicate) something to which no real state of things corresponds. a theory of codes must study everything that can be used in order to lie. – Umberto Eco

“The semiotic object of a semantics is the content, not the referent, and the content has to be defined as a cultural unit (or as a cluster or a system of interconnected cultural units)

The series of clarifications which circumscribed the cultural units of a society in a continuous progression (always defining them in the form of sign-vehicles) represents the chain of what Pierce called the interpretants.

-signs have to be described by a sign, it becomes recursive. this is what we are dealing with when we talk about “the camera” and cinematography in animation when there is not a camera, we draw the movement in 2D to simulate the concept of cinematography.

any camera move is ok as long as it serves the story. Lindsay Lane in American Cinematographer March 1935.

The “camera, cinematography” creates the illusion of occurrence. that the art should not call to it’s artifice.

The Illusion of presence in fine art. Thomas Puttfarken Pp29 talks about perspective.

“Our fundamental privilege, established by the picture’s formal intention at us, is complemented by a second sense of privilege, that of being witness to an event of major importance, presented specifically by for us, centrally, frontally and at close range.” p30

Code Switching

Rhetorical substitution, by establishing further connections, runs the whole gamut of the global semantic field, revealing its topological structure. in this activity contextual and circumstantial selections are frequently switched and overlapped, and short circuits of all sorts create sudden and unpredictable connections. -eco  -we have code switching with say, sugar, first it was healthy because it was natural, then it made us fat so it was unhealthy, then it was healthy again because the fake stuff is poisonous.